Isaiah 9 is a very familiar passage, “to us a child is born, to us a son is given.” And the government will be on the shoulders of this son, this child-king. Israel was in darkness, the darkness of the shadow of Assyria, which God was bringing against Israel as a flood. They would speak to the dead rather then the living God. They ignored the teaching and the testimony because they had no dawn. Of course, the Son came bringing the dawn, bringing life to the dead, and establishing His kingdom.
It’s interesting to note that it’s not just that His government and peace will have no end, but that the increase of His government and peace will have no end. His government and peace are infinite and ever expanding. And He has already ascended and is seated on His throne, the greater throne of the greater son of David. It’s not just Jews that He rules over, nor is it Jews and Gentiles separately, but He has made one new people, grafting Jews and Gentiles together into His church and ruling over all things through His church, his body, with Christ our head.